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Siberia, Russian Sibir, vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan, constituting all of northern Asia. Siberia extends from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east and southward from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and the borders of Mongolia and China.
All but the extreme southwestern area of Siberia lies in Russia. In Russian usage the administrative areas on the eastern flank of the Urals, along the Pacific seaboard, and within Kazakhstan are excluded from Siberia. The total area of Siberia in the wider sense is about 5,207,900 square miles (13,488,500 square km); in the narrower Russian definition the area is 2,529,000 square miles (6,550,000 square km), consisting of two economic planning regions, Eastern and Western Siberia. Siberia also contains the (Russian) republics of Sakha (Yakutia), Buryatia, Altay, Khakasiya, and Tyva (Tuva).
Siberia falls into four major geographic regions, all of great extent. In the west, abutting the Ural Mountains, is the huge West Siberian Plain, drained by the Ob and Yenisey rivers, varying little in relief, and containing wide tracts of swampland. East of the Yenisey River is central Siberia, a vast area that consists mainly of plains and the Central Siberian Plateau. Farther east the basin of the Lena River separates central Siberia from the complex series of mountain ranges, upland massifs, and intervening basins that make up northeastern Siberia (i.e., the Russian Far East). The smallest of the four regions is the Baikal area, which is centred on Lake Baikal in the south-central part of Siberia.