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Sri Lanka

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Sri Lanka has more than 2,550 years of continuous written history by means of the Mahawansha, and was also mentioned in several ancient Indian texts. One of the most famous is the Ramayana, in which the island, which was referred to as Lanka, was the island fortress of the king Ravana. And over many centuries Sri Lanka has had many names.

The Aryans arrived in Sri Lanka late in the 6th century BC, probably from northern India and mixed with locals to make Sinhalese ethnic group. Buddhism was introduced beginning in about the mid-3rd century BC, and a great civilization developed at such cities as Anuradhapura (kingdom from c. 200 BC to c. 1000 AD) and Polonnaruwa (c. 1070 to 1200). Other notable but relatively more recent kingdoms are Dambadeniya, Yapahuwa, Gampola, Kandy and Jaffna Kingdoms.

Partially occupied by the Portuguese in the 16th century and by the Dutch in the 17th century, the coastal parts island was ceded to the British in 1796, and became a british colony in 1802. The entire island was ceded to the British in 1815. As Ceylon, it became independent in 1948; the name was changed to Sri Lanka in 1972.

In May 2009 government military forces defeated the Tamil Tigers' separatist movement and ended a brutal 26 year-long war that began in 1983, thus opening up a new chapter in its history.


Since Sri Lanka is a tropical country, you can expect rain anytime of the year in different parts of the country. However, the two major rainy seasons are South-West monsoon (May to July) which predominantly affects the west & south coast of sri lanka and North-East monsoon (October to January) predominantly affecting the east coast.

The climate of Sri Lanka changes dramatically from central highlands to the coastal belt. For example at Nuwara Eliya, in the hills of Central Sri Lanka, has a temperature around 5-20°C throughout the year, whereas Hambanthota, located in the dry zone, has a temperature consistently around 30-35°C.


Mostly low, flat to rolling plain with mountains in the south-central interior rising to 2,524m at Piduruthalagala

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